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  4. Hi Maleetronic, Thanks for your interest publishing a project on elab! I personally handle the project submissions and manually adding them to our repository after reviewing. So if you would like to submit your project the best way is to send me an email to webmaster @ electronics-lab.com or let me know here. After project submission i will handle the rest. Let me know, how i can help you further.
  5. Hello, I am new here and also have my first question. I have designed a few boards recently, and now want to let people know, that they are available. I think, some of the boards can be interested to the community and therefore I would like to introduce these as "projects" or "articles" here. How to do this the right way? Thanks in advance...
  6. This is the main section of my article in which I am going to give you an idea of different hardware embedded tools and accessories needed to build an embedded system. Of course, you are going to connect components together to form a system, so you require a variety of tools. The components that you need may include sensors, actuators, microcontroller, converters etc. You can find information on components in my article on What is Embedded System? Now let’s talk about the tools in detail. 1. Soldering Iron The first tool among embedded tools that I am going to discuss here is soldering iron or soldering gun. As the name suggests, it is a tool used for soldering. A soldering iron supplies heat to melt a wire. This molten wire fills the space in the joints between two parts. To connect components together, or to fix components on your circuit board, you need to solder them. So soldering iron serves the purpose. A wire is used with this iron which is provided heat so that it melts down. This wire is called soldering wire. Mostly, these irons are supplied with electric current through cords or through batteries. The supplied current heats up the iron. The temperature of iron can be controlled in some models. This tool comes with a stand to keep the hot iron in a safe position. A wax and a sponge may also be provided with the gun to clean the tip after usage. The tip of a soldering iron can also be changed and removed easily. Tips of different shapes and sizes are used for different types of work pieces. A soldering iron is very light weight and easy to carry around. And really a very necessary tool in embedded system development. 2. Desoldering Gun Desoldering gun is also one of the important embedded tools. It is also named as desoldering pump. Desolder means to remove the solder usually from a joint. It serves the opposite function of a soldering gun. Sometimes we need to separate components from each other or to remove components from a circuit board as PCB (printed circuit board). This is required for repair or disassembling operation. So a desoldering iron is used in such cases. A desoldering iron removes the solder by sucking it. Due to this sucking operation, it is named as pump. A suction pump in this tool sucks the molten solder and makes the joint open again. This device is very useful to correct a wrong connected component. 3. Digital Multimeter A digital multimeter or DMM is a testing device among my list of embedded tools. This device is used to measure values of voltage, current and resistance. It is also used to check connectivity between two points. Digital multimeter is a standard testing tool for engineers and technicians. A DMM serves the function of three devices, ammeter for measuring current, voltmeter for measuring voltage and ohmmeter for measuring resistance. All the three devices come in this single package. It consists of a display that shows the measured value, slots for inserting test leads, few buttons such as power button and a switch to select operation you want to use. The test leads are inserted into DMM and then connected to the item being tested to form a closed circuit to the DMM. Measurement values such as volts, amperes or ohms are selected from the switch and result can be noted from the display. It is a very useful and must-have tool for embedded system developer. 4. Oscilloscope The next item in embedded tools is oscilloscope which is a testing device just like a digital multimeter. An oscilloscope is a device used to view voltage signals with respect to time. The signal is represented as a 2-D plot. It is commonly known as a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) or simply a scope. An oscilloscope can be used to show more than one signal at the same time. This device is not just used for voltage signals, instead it can be used for other electric signals as well. The waveform represented by oscilloscope is calibrated and different characteristics of wave such as frequency, amplitude, wavelength, time intervals etc. can be measured through it. Now let’s move towards the next item which is a cutter. 5. Cutter A cutter also known as wire cutter or clipper is used to cut jumper wires. Other than jumper wires, you can also use to cut copper, steel or other wires. Other than wire cutters, wire strippers are also used. A wire stripper is used to remove insulation from wires without cutting them. Now I am moving towards the last item on my embedded tools that is a laptop. 6. Laptop Laptop is among the most important tools required for embedded system development. You need a laptop from the very initial stage until the complete development of your product. Your laptop should be equipped with all required software tools that I mentioned earlier and an internet connection. You can search for suitable components for your system, write code and produce file for your microcontroller, simulate your system, have data sheets for all your components in it and much more. All of the tools that I mentioned in this article are essential ones for working on embedded systems. I hope you will find this article informative.
  7. hey all: i drew the diagram and connected the circuit according to the datasheet of LM2596, and i checked a few times, i forget to buy a IN5822 diode, so it's not in the board. could this IN5822 trigger this overheating problem? PS: the power supply was not hot at all when i use the 5v (in the right of the diagram in the pictures i uploaded), so what could be the problem? i am detecting and i put this here the same time to see if anybody could help me a bit. thanks in advance.
  8. Hi all, found this interesting yyd-3 module which is some sord of four channel "silicon" relay. It has four (817) optocouplers who's open collectors (Emitter:GND) drive (VCC:10M->G->10K:GND) the gate of an IRF5305S (used as a high side switch). I looked at the datasheet of that P-FET but am unsure if it will switch reliably at VCC voltages down to 3V. Those FETs need to switch minimum 100mA, at max 1.2A (all at 3V) and will operate at 70C temperatures. They are used as relays, i.e. to power lights etc. Has anybody worked with these FETs or does anybody know if there is a minimum (VCC) voltage or current required for these types of hexfets to switch on reliably? Thanks! Tags: descargar tonos gratis, iphone ringtones download, descargar sonidos para celular
  9. yaaas, many chinese solar garden light do have a dim light and last not long. And i will try your way to make a brighter led, thanks man. could really be helpful, though my eyes were indeed caught by you Gif-avatar, hahaha
  10. Hello friends, hope you all are fine and having fun with your lives. In today’s post we are gonna have a look at How to use Temperature Sensor 18B20 in Proteus ISIS. I will use Arduino board as a microcontroller and will connect the temperature sensor with it and then will display the code on LCD. I have already posted the same tutorial in which I have done Interfacing of Temperature Sensor 18B20 with Arduino but in that project I have used the real components and designed the hardware. But today, I will just show you the simulation so that you could test the simulation first and then design it in hardware. Temperature Sensor 18B20 is the most commonly used temperature sensor. Its a one wire sensor means it sends data through a single wire and we can connect multiple sensors with a single wire, that’s why its quite efficient and easy to use as well. I have also posted a tutorial on How to Interface LM35 sensor with Arduino in Proteus ISIS which is another temperature sensor so give it a try as well and let me know which one you think is better. Anyways let’s get started with temperature sensor 18B20 in Proteus ISIS. HOW TO USE 18B20 IN PROTEUS ISIS First of all, get these components from Proteus components list as shown in below figure: Now design the circuit as shown in below figure: As you can see in above simulation, we have used Arduino UNO board along with LCD and 18B20 temperature sensor. 18B20 in Proteus can’t detect the real temperature but we can change the temperature by pressing + and – buttons. So, now we have interfaced the temperature sensor and the LCD with Arduino. Next we are gonna design the code for Arduino and will upload it in Arduino baord. Note: If you don’t know How to use Arduino in Proteus then read Arduino Library for Proteus. You should also read How to get Hex File from Arduino, as Arduino software doesn’t generate the hex file. Now download these three libraries, one is “one wire” library which is the protocol for 18B20 temperature sensor, next is the Dallas Temperature sensor library which is the actua library for temperature sensor 18B20 and uses one wire library. Third library is the Crystal LCD library which is used for displaying character on LCD. So, download all these three libraries by clicking on below buttons and then paste them in your libraries folder of Arduino software. Download One Wire LibraryDownload Dallas Temperature LibraryDownlaod Liquid Crystal Library Now after adding these libraries, open your Arduino software and paste the below code into it. #include <OneWire.h> #include <DallasTemperature.h> #include <LiquidCrystal.h> #define ONE_WIRE_BUS 6 OneWire oneWire(ONE_WIRE_BUS); DallasTemperature sensors(&oneWire); LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 11, 5, 4, 3, 2); void setup(void) { Serial.begin(9600); Serial.println("Welcome to TEP !!!"); Serial.println("www.TheEngineeringProjects.com"); Serial.println(); sensors.begin(); lcd.begin(20, 4); lcd.setCursor(5,0); lcd.print("Welcome to:"); lcd.setCursor(1,2); lcd.print("www.TheEngineering"); lcd.setCursor(4,3); lcd.print("Projects.com"); delay(5000); } void loop(void) { sensors.requestTemperatures(); Serial.print("Temperature : "); Serial.println(sensors.getTempCByIndex(0)); //lcd.clear(); lcd.setCursor(0,0); lcd.print("Temperature: "); lcd.print(sensors.getTempCByIndex(0)); lcd.print("C"); delay(1000); } Now get your hex file from Arduino and upload it to your Proteus Arduino board and hit the RUN button. If everything goes fine then you will something like this at the start: After a delay of around 5 sec you will start receiving the Temperature sensor 18B20 values on your LCD as shown in below figure: Now you can see the value shown in the temperature sensor is the same as in LCD. So, now by clicking the + and – buttons on temperature sensor, you can increase and decrease the value of temperature and same will be changed in LCD. That’s how you can do simulation of Temperature sensor 18B20 in Proteus ISIS. Its quite simple and easy to use. That’s all for today, hope you get some knowledge out of it.
  11. I have heard all of these three pcb manufacturers, maybe i would give them a try for pcb prototype service next time.
  12. Hello friends, we have designed many Proteus Libraries on our blog The Engineering Projects which are not yet developed and we are really very proud that we are the first designers for these Proteus Libraries. I am gonna share all those Proteus Libraries in this instructable so that Engineering Students can download them and use them in their Projects. I have also designed their videos in which I have explained in detail How to use these Proteus Libraries. So, you can join our You Tube Channel to have a look at these Proteus Libraries. Here are the links: Our YouTube channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbVgl6VOoqgq8FalMq6vikw Our Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/theengineeringprojects So, let's get started with these New Proteus Libraries for Engineering Students: Step 1: Links to Download New Proteus Libraries Here are the links to our New Proteus Libraries: Arduino Library for Proteus Genuino Library for Proteus GPS Library for Proteus GSM Library for Proteus XBee Library for Proteus Arduino UNO Library for Proteus Arduino Mega Library for Proteus Arduino Nano Library for Proteus Arduino Pro Mini Library for Proteus Ultrasonic Sensor Library for Proteus PIR Sensor Library for Proteus Bluetooth Library for Proteus DS1307 Library for Proteus Gas Sensor Library for Proteus Vibration Sensor Library for Proteus Flame Sensor Library for Proteus
  13. Hello friends, we have designed many Proteus Libraries on our blog The Engineering Projects which are not yet developed and we are really very proud that we are the first designers for these Proteus Libraries. I am gonna share all those Proteus Libraries in this instructable so that Engineering Students can download them and use them in their Projects. I have also designed their videos in which I have explained in detail How to use these Proteus Libraries. So, you can join our You Tube Channel to have a look at these Proteus Libraries. Here are the links: Our YouTube channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbVgl6VOoqgq8FalMq6vikw Our Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/theengineeringprojects So, let's get started with these New Proteus Libraries for Engineering Students: Step 1: Links to Download New Proteus Libraries Here are the links to our New Proteus Libraries: Arduino Library for Proteus Genuino Library for Proteus GPS Library for Proteus GSM Library for Proteus XBee Library for Proteus Arduino UNO Library for Proteus Arduino Mega Library for Proteus Arduino Nano Library for Proteus Arduino Pro Mini Library for Proteus Ultrasonic Sensor Library for Proteus PIR Sensor Library for Proteus Bluetooth Library for Proteus DS1307 Library for Proteus Gas Sensor Library for Proteus Vibration Sensor Library for Proteus Flame Sensor Library for Proteus
  14. You said it is rated at only 24W. Why are you overloading it with 10 times too much load?
  15. I used a switching power supply(300v, 24w), why can't it bear a 240w circuit ? (240w is a certain number of 2.4w loads in parallel )
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  17. Model : PD200300-392 50 Ohm 3-Way 2.92mm-Female Power Divider From 20 to 30 GHz Rated at 20 Watts 30 GHz, 2.92mm-Female Power Divider; Insertion Loss 1.8dB; Isolation 20dB; Operating Temperature -55 to +105℃. Frequency Range | GHz : 20-30 Impedance | Ω : 50 Input VSWR | Max. : 1.7 Output VSWR | Max. : 1.7 Insertion Loss | dB Max. : 1.8 Amplitude Balance | dB Max. : 1.2 Phase Balance | deg Max. : 16 Isolator | dB Min. : 20 CW Power | W Max. : 20 Peak Power | KW Max. : 3
  18. Amplifier Classes Explained Not all amplifiers are the same. Generally, amplifiers are classified according to their circuit configuration and method of operation, and as such Amplifier Classes are used to differentiate between them. Amplifier classes range from entirely linear operation (for use in high-fidelity signal amplification) with low efficiency, to entirely non-linear (where faithful reproduction is not so important) operation with high efficiency, while others are a compromise between the two. Amplifier Classes are mainly lumped into two basic groups. The classically controlled conduction angle amplifier forming amplifier classes A, B, AB and C, which are defined by the length of their conduction state over some portion of the output waveform, such that the output stage transistor operation lies somewhere between being “fully-ON” and “fully-OFF”, and the so-called “switching” amplifier classes of D, E, F, G, S, T etc, that are constantly being switched between “fully-ON” and “fully-OFF”. The most commonly available amplifier classes are those that are used as audio amplifiers , mainly A, B, AB and C and to keep it simple, it is these amplifier classes we will look at here in this amplifier classes tutorial. Class A Amplifier Class A Amplifiers are the simplest in design, and probably the best sounding of all the amplifier classes due to their low signal distortion. The class A amplifier has the highest linearity over the other amplifier classes and as such operates in the linear portion of the characteristics curve. This means that the output stage whether using a bipolar, mosfets or IGBT device, is never driven fully into its cut-off or saturation regions. Class A Amplifier To achieve high linearity and gain, the output stage is biased “ON” (conducting) all the time and operates at a constant current equal to or greater then the current which the load (usually a loudspeaker) requires to produce the largest output signal. The output device conducts through 360 degrees of the output waveform. Then the class A amplifier is equivalent to a current source. Since a class A amplifier operates in the linear region, the transistors base (or gate) DC biasing voltage should by chosen properly to ensure correct operation and low distortion. However, as the output device is “ON” at all times, it is constantly carrying current, which represents a continuous loss of power in the amplifier. Due to this continuous loss of power class A amplifiers create tremendous amounts of heat adding to their very low efficiency at around 30%, making them impractical for high-power amplifications. Therefore, due to the low efficiency and over heating problems of Class A amplifiers, more efficient amplifier classes have been developed. Class B Amplifier Class B amplifiers were invented as a solution to the efficiency and heating problems associated with the class A amplifiers. The basic class B amplifier uses two complimentary transistor devices (one NPN and one PNP transistor connected in common collector mode) in its output stage configured in a “push-pull” arrangement, with each device amplifying only half of the output waveform. In the class B amplifier, there is no standing bias current as its quiescent current is zero, therefore its efficiency is much higher than that of the class A amplifier. When the input signal goes positive, the positive biased device conducts while the negative device is switched off. Likewise, when the input signal goes negative, the positive device switches off while the negative biased device turns on and conducts the negative portion of the signal. Class B Amplifier Therefore, each transistor device of the class B amplifier only conducts through 180 degrees of the output waveform in strict time alternation, but as the output stage has devices for both halves of the signal waveform the two halves are combined together to produce the full linear output waveform. This push-pull design of amplifier is obviously more efficient than Class A, at about 50%, but the problem with the class B amplifier design is that it can create distortion at the zero-crossing point of the waveform due to the transistors dead band of input base voltages from -0.7V to +0.7V, making it unsuitable for precision amplifier applications. Class AB Amplifier As its name suggests, the Class AB Amplifier is a combination of the two class A and class B type amplifiers above, and is currently one of the most common types of power amplifier design. The class AB amplifier is a variation of a class B amplifier as described above, except that both devices are allowed to conduct at the same time around the crossover point eliminating the crossover distortion problems of the pure class B amplifier. The two transistors have a very small bias voltage, typically at 5 to 10% of the quiescent current to bias the transistors just above cut-off. In this case, the transistor will be “ON” for more than half a cycle, but less than a full cycle of the input signal. Then in a class AB amplifier design each of the push-pull transistors is conducting for slightly more than the half cycle of conduction in class B, but much less than the full cycle of conduction of class A. Class AB Amplifier The advantage of this small bias voltage is that the crossover distortion created by the class B amplifier characteristics is overcome, without the inefficiencies of a the class A amplifier design. So the class AB amplifier is a compromise between class A and class B in terms of efficiency and linearity, with efficiencies reaching about 50% to 60%. Class C Amplifier The Class C Amplifier design has the greatest efficiency but the poorest linearity of the classes of amplifiers. The previous classes, A, B and AB are considered linear amplifiers, as the output signals amplitude and phase are linearly related to the input signals amplitude and phase. However, the class C amplifier is heavily biased so that the output current is zero for more than one half of an input sinusoidal signal cycle. In other words, the conduction angle for the transistor is significantly less than 180 degrees, at around 90 to 120 degrees. This form of biasing gives a much improved efficiency of around 80% to the amplifier, but very heavy distortion of the output signal. Therefore, class C amplifiers are not suitable for use as audio amplifiers. Class C Amplifier Class C amplifiers are commonly used in high frequency sine wave oscillators and certain types of radio frequency amplifiers, where the pulses of current produced at the amplifiers output can be converted to complete sine waves of a particular frequency by the use of LC resonant circuits. Then we have seen that the quiescent DC operating point (Q-point) of an amplifier determines the amplifier classification. By setting the position of the Q-point at half way on the load line of the amplifiers characteristics curve, the amplifier will operate as a class A amplifier. By moving the Q-point lower down the load line changes the amplifier into a class AB, B or C amplifier. Then the class of operation of the amplifier with regards to its DC operating point can be given as: Amplifier Classes and Efficiency As well as audio amplifiers there are a number of high efficiency Amplifier Classes relating to switching amplifier designs that use different switching techniques to reduce power loss and increase efficiency. Some amplifier class designs listed below use RLC resonators or multiple power-supply voltages to reduce power loss.
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  20. The low volume pcb assembly services can be easily found in China. You can locate them through search engines i.e. by searching a keyword like “prototype PCB assembly in China". Most of the Small run circuit board assembly companies have their assembly facilities both in America and China. And they provide quick turnaround time.
  21. You ask for a lot! Start with Ebay.com for transmitters and receivers: see: http://www.ebay.com/itm/Mini-88-108MHz-FM-Transmitter-Module-Wireless-Microphone-Dictagraph-Interceptor/141659602950?_trksid=p2047675.c100005.m1851&_trkparms=aid%3D222007%26algo%3DSIC.MBE%26ao%3D2%26asc%3D40832%26meid%3D5caec1e4bbe74e2fa065b6379434198a%26pid%3D100005%26rk%3D2%26rkt%3D6%26sd%3D111649741072
  22. The cheap Chinese solar garden light has a dim light for only a couple of hours following a sunny day. It lasts only a couple of months before its LED, solar panel and battery rust away. No light following a cloudy day. The cheap solar panel actually gets sunburned. Use the pcb circuit from a solar garden light and amplify its output with a transistor to drive a bright high current LED. Use a larger high current high quality solar panel and battery. Properly seal everything to prevent rust.
  23. Drill a hole on top of the mailbox and insert a ----> Without its pole. Optional, add a door switch for the LED. Done fast for $1. Some silicone sealant may help.
  24. http://www.talkingelectronics.com/projects/SolarLight/SolarCharger-2.html
  25. hey dear you can easily order them from any manufacturer website such as we deal with arduino and you can order us at @ Engineering Projects, you can also review our tools like RESISTOR CALCULATOR, now just check our Engineering Projects Shop.
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  27. wow ! It's great that you are getting back to the electronics once again, why not you try some engineering projects with arduino? it is really very helpful for you to learn more in embedded system?
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