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  5. hello, i found out your page on internet http://www.electronics-lab.com/400v-5a-power-supply-brushless-motor-drivers/ 400V - 5A Power Supply For Brushless Motor Drivers - Electronics-Lab Although the power supply design is specific to the Brushless Servo Drivers mainly for IPM Modules, the concepts and circuit design may be used for any power supply requires high voltage output up to 400V DC and 5 Amps. The power supply is an unregulated design with an option to allow connection to ... www.electronics-lab.com however i have several questions about this board: -how does this board is working?can i connect a arduino UNO on it to manage the set up? -how does it coast? -is it abble to supply a bdlc motor direct drive of 600 watt? (0,6 hp) if yes,how do we manage the rpm on this board? i use a arduino uno to pilote a board i made by my own,this board is composed of 6 IRF840 and 3 microcontrollers IR2104 meanly,i found out the software on internet to this page https://simple-circuit.com/arduino-sensorless-bldc-motor-controller-esc/ but am not sure neither that the code can be efficient enough to supply the kind of motor i use.. thanks to care regards from france nicolas rollet Sensorless BLDC motor control with Arduino - Simple Projects This topic shows how to build a sensorless brushless DC (BLDC) motor controller or simply an ESC (Electronic Speed Controller) using Arduino. There are two types of brushless DC motors: sensored and sensorless. Sensorless BLDC motor commutation is based on the BEMF produced in the stator windings. simple-circuit.com
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  7. This power supply is also published on an old Czech electronic magazine attached here. and here is also two nice builds of this PSU: https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&u=paja-trb.cz%2Fkonstrukce%2Fzdroj.html and here: http://diyfan.blogspot.com/2012/02/adjustable-lab-power-supply.html 0-30V 3A PSU.pdf
  8. LOGIC GATES Logic gates are the basic building elements of any digital systems or circuits. The name Logic gate is derived from the sense of the making decisions ability of such a device, and after making decisions it produce one output result. We can say that Logic gates are the fundamental building blocks of any digital circuits or digital systems. There are 3 basic Types of Logic gates – (1)-AND , (2)-OR , (3)-NOT Basically Logic gates are elementary electronic logic circuit that can make a variety of different types of circuits by interconnection of these three gates to perform complex logically operations of any computer. This is called logic design. Logic gates made a number of electronic devices and other digital components. In practical application of logic gates we see in the form of different Ics. These Ics are in LSI (Large scale integration), VLSI (Very large scale integration ) and SSI (Small scale integration) . Input and Outputs of Logic gates in only two levels called TRUE and FALSE , or HIGH and LOW, or ON and OFF, or very popular 0 and 1. High (1 or TRUE or ON) means +5v LOW(0 or FALSE or OFF) means 0v (or -ve supply) These 2 level logic also called Positive and Negative Logic. AND GATE AND gate has two or more than two inputs and only one Output. In AND gate Output is High or 1 only when each input of it has in HIGH state. Means output is 1 if only all inputs are at 1 level. If any one input goes at 0 level then the output of AND gate becomes 0 . Logic Symbol Input Variables are represented by A,B,C…… and the the output is written as X. In the Boolean expression it can be written as X=A.B.C……. It Can be read as X is equal to A and B and C ….or X is equal to A dot B dot C…. or X is equal to ABC….. Realization of AND Gate- AND gate may be realized by the using of diode and transistors. If it made by using diodes then it called as DL(Diode Logic) and if using transistors it called as RTL (Resistor Transistor Logic) . In the Diode Logic AND gate When the input A = +5v and input B is also +5v, in this case both diodes D1 and D2 are off (because of reverse mode). And therefore no current flows through resistor R. So no voltage drop occurs across R and voltage remain at the output is HIGH. When A=0, and B=0v or any one of A or B is 0v. Then the both diodes or corresponding Diode D1 or D2 are ON and the circuit is act as short circuit. In this condition the output X=LOW or 0v. RTL AND Gate circuit In the RTL AND gate or transistor gate, When A=0v and B=0v. Then the transistors Q1 and Q2 are off but transistor Q3 remain in ON, and the voltage at output is LOW or 0v because of Q3 ON and current pass through Q3 and voltage is dropped through R. If Any one of input A or B is high then Either Q1 or Either Q2 will off and then no voltage drop occurs at R. So Q3 Will remain in turn on and therefore output will LOW. If input A and input B both are HIGH then both transistors Q1 and Q2 will turn on and current passes through these transistors between ground and +5v and voltage will LOW at the collector pin of T1 and at input of Q3 . So Q3 will off and no voltage drop at collector pin and output will HIGH. At HIGH condition the voltage at output is approx 5v (X≈5v). Also read Ultrasonic Distance measurement project using Arduino OR gate- OR gate have also two or more than two inputs but only one output. The output is HIGH or 1 if even any one of input is 1. The output is o or LOW if all of its input is in LOW state or 0 . OR gate is defined as the device which output is o if any one of its input is 1. Must read What is NOT gate The Logic symbol for OR gate is +. The Boolean expression for the output can be written as X=A+B+C+…… This is written as X is equal to A plus B plus C or it can also be read as X is equal to A or B or C or ….. . Realization of OR gates can be made using Diodes(Diode Logic) or Transistors(RTL). In the diode or gate, when both input A and B=0v or LOW , then both diodes D1 And D2 are OFF state because of reverse biasing. So No any current pass Through R and No voltage drop will occur . Then the output X=0v . If both input or any one of both input are +5v . Then the corresponding diode D1 or D2 is On or both diode D1 and D2 are ON and short circuit occur across them. Therefore the output X is approx to +5v. voltage drop across diode is +5v-0.7v= 4.3v . But this is treated as HIGH or 1. In the Transistor (RTL) logic OR gate circuit, When both input A & B are 0v. Transistors Q1 and Q2 are OFF and Transistor Q3 is ON because of it get Base voltage through Resistor R1. So the output voltage at Collector pin of Q3 go 0v by dropping of voltage with ground at R2 . If any one of any input A or B is HIGH or 1 then the corresponding transistors in ON state . So voltage at the collector of that transistor goes to 0v by voltage drop and there is no any Base voltage at the Q3 and no any voltage drop occurs at R2 therefor the output is HIGH OR 1. The Universal Gates Universal gates are defined as Which logic gates can implement any types logic gates . There are two universal gates NAND and NOR. Both NAND and NOR gates can perform all the three basic logic functions of AND, OR, NOT. AOI (AND/OR/INVERT(NOT)) can be converted to NAND logic or NOR logic. Types of Universal Gates NAND Gate (NOT-AND) NAND gate is a combination of AND gate and NOT gate. If the output of AND gate is Inverted then it is called NAND gate. NAND = NOT AND. When AND output is NOTed or Inverted then it is called NAND gate. The output is 0 only if each inputs is 1 and output is 0 if any one of any input or all inputs are 0. Means when all inputs are 1 then output will 1 otherwise if different combination of input the output is 0. The boolean expression of NAND gate is written as X= This is read as X=A.B.C….whole bar. Realization of NAND gate- A two input NAND gate can be realized using Diode Transistor Logic. When the input A and B both are HIGH or +5v then both diodes are off and transistor get base voltage through R1 . So the transistor is ON and the output voltage at collector is 0v because of dropped voltage with ground. When Both input A and B are 0v then the both diode are in ON because of forward bias (here 0v means negative supply) . So Base voltage of transistor is 0v. So Transistor is in OFF and then the output is HIGH or approx +5v. NOR Gate When the output of OR gate is NOTed or inverted then it is called NOR gate. NOR means NOT OR. NOR gate is the combination of an OR gate and a NOT gate. The output is 1 or HIGH when only the both input is 0 or LOW. Otherwise output is 0. The boolean expression for the NOR gate is expressed as given below This is read as X is equal to A plus B plus C plus .....whole bar. Realization of NOR gate- For more circuits and tutorials click here Two input RTL(Resistor transistor logic) NOT gate can be realized using two transistors and resistors. When Input A and B both are 0. A=0 and B=0. Then both transistors are OFF because no base voltage get. So no current flows through transistors and no voltage drop occurs. Therefore only current passes through R the output is HIGH. Also read Arduino remote control AC load
  9. LOGIC GATES Logic gates are the basic building elements of any digital systems or circuits. The name Logic gate is derived from the sense of the making decisions ability of such a device, and after making decisions it produce one output result. We can say that Logic gates are the fundamental building blocks of any digital circuits or digital systems. There are 3 basic Types of Logic gates – (1)-AND , (2)-OR , (3)-NOT Basically Logic gates are elementary electronic logic circuit that can make a variety of different types of circuits by interconnection of these three gates to perform complex logically operations of any computer. This is called logic design. Logic gates made a number of electronic devices and other digital components. In practical application of logic gates we see in the form of different Ics. These Ics are in LSI (Large scale integration), VLSI (Very large scale integration ) and SSI (Small scale integration) . Input and Outputs of Logic gates in only two levels called TRUE and FALSE , or HIGH and LOW, or ON and OFF, or very popular 0 and 1. High (1 or TRUE or ON) means +5v LOW(0 or FALSE or OFF) means 0v (or -ve supply) These 2 level logic also called Positive and Negative Logic. AND GATE AND gate has two or more than two inputs and only one Output. In AND gate Output is High or 1 only when each input of it has in HIGH state. Means output is 1 if only all inputs are at 1 level. If any one input goes at 0 level then the output of AND gate becomes 0 . Logic Symbol Input Variables are represented by A,B,C…… and the the output is written as X. In the Boolean expression it can be written as X=A.B.C……. It Can be read as X is equal to A and B and C ….or X is equal to A dot B dot C…. or X is equal to ABC….. Realization of AND Gate- AND gate may be realized by the using of diode and transistors. If it made by using diodes then it called as DL(Diode Logic) and if using transistors it called as RTL (Resistor Transistor Logic) . In the Diode Logic AND gate When the input A = +5v and input B is also +5v, in this case both diodes D1 and D2 are off (because of reverse mode). And therefore no current flows through resistor R. So no voltage drop occurs across R and voltage remain at the output is HIGH. When A=0, and B=0v or any one of A or B is 0v. Then the both diodes or corresponding Diode D1 or D2 are ON and the circuit is act as short circuit. In this condition the output X=LOW or 0v. RTL AND Gate circuit In the RTL AND gate or transistor gate, When A=0v and B=0v. Then the transistors Q1 and Q2 are off but transistor Q3 remain in ON, and the voltage at output is LOW or 0v because of Q3 ON and current pass through Q3 and voltage is dropped through R. If Any one of input A or B is high then Either Q1 or Either Q2 will off and then no voltage drop occurs at R. So Q3 Will remain in turn on and therefore output will LOW. If input A and input B both are HIGH then both transistors Q1 and Q2 will turn on and current passes through these transistors between ground and +5v and voltage will LOW at the collector pin of T1 and at input of Q3 . So Q3 will off and no voltage drop at collector pin and output will HIGH. At HIGH condition the voltage at output is approx 5v (X≈5v). Also read Ultrasonic Distance measurement project using Arduino OR gate- OR gate have also two or more than two inputs but only one output. The output is HIGH or 1 if even any one of input is 1. The output is o or LOW if all of its input is in LOW state or 0 . OR gate is defined as the device which output is o if any one of its input is 1. Must read What is NOT gate The Logic symbol for OR gate is +. The Boolean expression for the output can be written as X=A+B+C+…… This is written as X is equal to A plus B plus C or it can also be read as X is equal to A or B or C or ….. . Realization of OR gates can be made using Diodes(Diode Logic) or Transistors(RTL). In the diode or gate, when both input A and B=0v or LOW , then both diodes D1 And D2 are OFF state because of reverse biasing. So No any current pass Through R and No voltage drop will occur . Then the output X=0v . If both input or any one of both input are +5v . Then the corresponding diode D1 or D2 is On or both diode D1 and D2 are ON and short circuit occur across them. Therefore the output X is approx to +5v. voltage drop across diode is +5v-0.7v= 4.3v . But this is treated as HIGH or 1. In the Transistor (RTL) logic OR gate circuit, When both input A & B are 0v. Transistors Q1 and Q2 are OFF and Transistor Q3 is ON because of it get Base voltage through Resistor R1. So the output voltage at Collector pin of Q3 go 0v by dropping of voltage with ground at R2 . If any one of any input A or B is HIGH or 1 then the corresponding transistors in ON state . So voltage at the collector of that transistor goes to 0v by voltage drop and there is no any Base voltage at the Q3 and no any voltage drop occurs at R2 therefor the output is HIGH OR 1. The Universal Gates Universal gates are defined as Which logic gates can implement any types logic gates . There are two universal gates NAND and NOR. Both NAND and NOR gates can perform all the three basic logic functions of AND, OR, NOT. AOI (AND/OR/INVERT(NOT)) can be converted to NAND logic or NOR logic. Types of Universal Gates NAND Gate (NOT-AND) NAND gate is a combination of AND gate and NOT gate. If the output of AND gate is Inverted then it is called NAND gate. NAND = NOT AND. When AND output is NOTed or Inverted then it is called NAND gate. The output is 0 only if each inputs is 1 and output is 0 if any one of any input or all inputs are 0. Means when all inputs are 1 then output will 1 otherwise if different combination of input the output is 0. The boolean expression of NAND gate is written as X= This is read as X=A.B.C….whole bar. Realization of NAND gate- A two input NAND gate can be realized using Diode Transistor Logic. When the input A and B both are HIGH or +5v then both diodes are off and transistor get base voltage through R1 . So the transistor is ON and the output voltage at collector is 0v because of dropped voltage with ground. When Both input A and B are 0v then the both diode are in ON because of forward bias (here 0v means negative supply) . So Base voltage of transistor is 0v. So Transistor is in OFF and then the output is HIGH or approx +5v. NOR Gate When the output of OR gate is NOTed or inverted then it is called NOR gate. NOR means NOT OR. NOR gate is the combination of an OR gate and a NOT gate. The output is 1 or HIGH when only the both input is 0 or LOW. Otherwise output is 0. The boolean expression for the NOR gate is expressed as given below This is read as X is equal to A plus B plus C plus .....whole bar. Realization of NOR gate- For more circuits and tutorials click here Two input RTL(Resistor transistor logic) NOT gate can be realized using two transistors and resistors. When Input A and B both are 0. A=0 and B=0. Then both transistors are OFF because no base voltage get. So no current flows through transistors and no voltage drop occurs. Therefore only current passes through R the output is HIGH. Also read Arduino remote control AC load
  10. The higher voltage op amps i've see are pretty expensive. Wonder if you could incorporate a circuit in it to bring the vcc down to 12v. and still have it work. If the circuit works right I was wondering if you could add some pass transistors and some 10 watt or so emitter resistors to the output.
  11. The circuit is the same as the old Greek kit here except a few part numbers are changed and the maximum output current is only 2A. It also has the problem of an overloaded transformer since with a 2ADC output the 25VAC input is 2.83A, not 2A. I ,saw some 741A opamps rated at 44V which might work but I do not think the maximum output voltage will be 30V, probably only 26VDC at 2A with lots of ripple. I wonder which circuit came first?
  12. Dont mean to resurrect a dead horse but I recently came across the old stabilized o-30 volt power supply. I found the original magazine article from 1978. Seems like it lost it's original design over the years. I attached the pdf of the issue. It starts on page 40. Practical-Electronics-1978-10.pdf
  13. Hi KrisDong, This is a simple time-of-day digital clock, a good starting point for learning the basics on microcontrollers. It uses the 18-pin PIC16F84A, a seven-segment LED clock display and three input switches. I have almost preserved the same hardware and ordered an appropriate printed circuit board from www.greatpcb.com for making the project simple.
  14. Is anyone still working on this psu or has it been determined to be a dead horse.
  15. Earlier
  16. I have some Li-PO batteries for my RC airplanes that had hundreds of flight and had storage for a few winters. I can charge one and use it and it produces a problem like you have but it charges normally. The battery is worn out and cannot produce normal power continuously for a normal duration. Measure the output voltage of the L298 that feeds the motor. If it drops lower and lower then also measure the input voltage of the L298 to see if it drops when the motor is slowing down. A Lithium rechargeable battery quickly becomes ruined if its voltage becomes less than about 3V per cell. my airplanes pulse the motor power as a warning to me that the voltage is becoming low then the motor stops but allows the steering servos to control the glide.
  17. I charged it before i put it in the circuit still the same
  18. From my point of view you don't create transformer less circuit LED TV manufacturers LED TV suppliers
  19. Every digital clock has a crystal inside it to keep track of time. This crystal is not only present in the clock but also present in all computing real-time systems. This crystal generates clock pulses, which is needed for timing calculations. Although there are some other ways to get clock pulses for higher accuracy and frequency, but the most preferred way is to use crystal to keep track of time. Here we will DS3231 RTC IC to build an Atmega16 based Digital Wall Clock. DS3231 RTC has a highly accurate crystal inside it, so no external Crystal oscillator is needed. In this Digital Clock Project, ten common anode 7-segment displays of 0.8-inch are used to display time and date. Here seven segment displays are used to show hour, minute, date, month and year. Our PCB design also has options to display seconds and temperature, which can be displayed by adding more display units. Circuit Diagram and Explanation There are two parts of this Digital Wall Clock Circuit, one is display part which has 5 pairs of 7-segments on five different PCB boards and another is controlled Unit part which is responsible for fetching time from RTC chip and send that data and time to 7-segment display. As we have used 10 seven segment displays so we cannot connect each display with a separate IO port. So here multiplexing technique is used to connect multiple seven segments using fewer pins of microcontroller. LED pins a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h of seven segment display is connected to PORTB of atmega16 parallel. Here we have used 10 seven segment displays so we need 10 control pins which are connected at PORTD, PORTA and PORTC. RTC DS3231 having an internal crystal is connected to PORTC’s SDA and SCL pin because this chip works on I2C communication. Interfacing method of this chip is the same as DS1307. We have used DS1307 with Arduino, Raspberry Pi and 8051 MCU. Same code can be used for both DS3231 and DS1307. For one display board, two seven segment displays and 2 LED are used. So here we have five different display boards to display Time in Hours and minute (HH-MM), and date in DD-MM-YY. PCB Design and fabrication for the Digital Clock For this Atmega16 based wall clock project, we have designed two PCBs. One is for Control unit which is used to control all the operations of the project and second part is for displaying the time and date on seven segment displays. Display part contains five pairs of 0.8 inches seven segment display. So by assembling 5 pieces we have the complete Digital Clock. To multiplex 7-segment displays, Data line of the 5 PCBs will be connected to the same port of control unit and control line is connected different pin of the control unit. Below are the top and bottom views of PCB layouts of one Display board which consists two seven segment displays: Below are the top and bottom views of Control Unit PCBs Ordering the PCB using PCBGoGo There are many PCB fabrication services are available online, but as I used PCBGoGo previously in one of my other projects, I found it cheap and hassle-free as compared to other vendors. Here are the steps to order PCB from PCBGoGo: Step 1: Get into www.pcbgogo.com, sign up if this is your first time. Then, in the PCB Prototype tab enter the dimensions of your PCB, the number of layers and the number of PCB you require. Step 2: Proceed by clicking on the Quote Now button. You will be taken to a page where to set few additional parameters if required like the material used track spacing etc. But mostly the default values will work fine. The only thing that we have to consider here is the price and time. As you can see the Build Time is only 2-3 days and it just costs only $5 for our PSB. You can then select a preferred shipping method based on your requirement. Step 3: The final step is to upload the Gerber file and proceed with the payment. To make sure the process is smooth PCBGOGO verifies if your Gerber file is valid before proceeding with the payment. This way you can sure that your PCB is fabrication friendly and will reach you as committed. Now PCBGoGo will take some time around 10 min to 1 Hour to review your Gerber file. After completion of the review, you can proceed with the payment. Assembling the PCB After the board was ordered, it reached me after some days though courier in a neatly labeled well packed box and like always the quality of the PCB was awesome. I am sharing few pictures of the boards below for you to judge. I turned on my soldering rod and started assembling the Board. Since the Footprints, pads, vias and silkscreen are perfectly of the right shape and size I had no problem assembling the board. The board was ready in just 10 minutes from the time of unpacking the box. Few pictures of the board after soldering are shown below. Testing the Digital Clock Complete code is given at the end of this tutorial, just connect the PCBs as shown in the circuit diagram and upload the code into Atmega16. And you will see time and date appearing on the ten Seven segments displays.
  20. Maybe your battery is not fully charged. Measure its voltage while the motors are running.
  21. HarryA

    Rc car

    Perhaps the chip is over heating with to much current draw? Try connecting only two motors to see what happens. For the l298n chip itself: For the IO Peak Output Current (each Channel) – Non Repetitive (t = 100ms) 3.0A –Repetitive (80% on –20% off; ton = 10ms) 2.5A –DC Operation 2.0A TOTAL DC CURRENT UP TO 4 A
  22. I do not see your question; perhaps I am missing something
  23. Hi i am a beginner with electronics and i was trying to make an arduino rc car with l298n motor driver the proplem with the driver that it start fine and then the motors start to slow down until it stops it is 4motors car with a simple code to just make it move forward but i don't know where is the proplem
  24. R = 400, C = 0.1 F , L = 0.1 H.
  25. If you are not big on building your own transformer look at: http://www.surplussales.com/homenew.html#Transformers example; 95VA Toroidal Transformer 117/234V to 2 x 15V or 30V at 3.2 Amps at 230 v that would give you say: 14.7 volts; a fat resistor would remove the 0.7
  26. Thanks Harry A. I was really waiting for it. It is great you have book on Designing transformers. I will need help later. But my question is different. To make it easier let me clarify, so that one can understand better. Say you have to design a stepdown transformer. Specifications as under: Input voltage- 230v, Output volt is 14v @ 650 mA. Core Area is 1.90 cm (tongue width) and 2.00 (stack height) Now what will be the Primary Turns, Primary Current, Primary wire Gauge. What will be the Secondary turns and Secondary wire gauge. What is the Turns per volt. How to choose wire gauge (enamelled copper wire) My calculations says: TPV: 12.73, PTurn-2929, STurn-178 Pri.wire gauge-38/39 swg; Sec.wire gauge-25/26 swg Am I right or wrong? Please suggest.
  27. if: Vp = primary voltage, Ip =primary current, Np = number of primary windings. Vs = secondary voltage, Is = secondary current, Ns = number of secondary winding. then: Vp = Vs(Ns/Np) and Ip = Is(Ns/Np) example: To transform 120 vac to 12 vac, Vs = 120 vac (100/1000) = 12 vac Ns/Np = 0.1, say 100/1000 Using Ip = Is(Ns/Np) I am not clear which way you are going here. 0.3 amperes = 1 ampere (Ns/Np) Ns/Np = 0.3 say 180/600 or: 1 ampere = 0.3(Np/Ns) Np/Ns = 3.33.. or say 600/180 For power: Pp = Ps at 100% efficiency. Ps = n * Pp where n is the efficiency factor. n between 65 and 99 percent For 50 watts at the secondary and 75% efficiency the primary power would be: Pp watts= Ps/n = 50 vac/0.75 = 66.66... watts. For Impedance: Zp = Zs(Np/Ns)^2 To connect an 8 ohm speaker to a 400 ohm amplifier: Np/Ns = (Zp/Zs)^0.5 = (400/8)^0.5 = 7 I must confess I have no idea how many windings real transformers have; do not go by my numbers. Somewhere I have a book that has information on designing transformers if you need more info I will try to find it.
  28. A note.... I understand the pots wiring warning above and have sorted that out with the help of the person who created the original design. Am asking an additional question as my query to the originator... he has not answered yet so thought to come back here for help: Hello, thought I would try and come back for a follow up question given that I received responses from here, to the prior plea for help on this circuit. Note that I was able to raise the engineer who crafted this original circuit and he gave an answer that I somewhat understand… but hoping someone could clarify the addition of two resistors that are NOT part of the original schematic. I have attached a visual snapshot of the entire circuit with these additional resistors, a second snapshot zoomed in to point in question, and also the overall schematic that does NOT include these additional resistors and what I believe is a fuse that am looking for help on answering. So….. Question is… on the LED that displays as the Power on/off indicator, I saw in the video (and extracted a snapshot) that there were two resistors and what I believe is a fuse. This was not in the original schematic. I asked what these were and his reply was “These are serial resistors that serve to reduce the current through the LED diode and have a value of about 1 Kohm. In addition, these LEDs only serve as a visual indication and have no impact on the work of the device.” I understand the LED for power indicator is optional sure. I would like however to add this LED to the circuit. What I am looking for help on is… are these resistors simply a 1K ohm, ½ watt resistor? And by serial, how are they wired? Note that this is for a 19v power supply which is used in the original design. But this circuit can go up to 36v. So for a 19v power source, what are these resistors, how would this be wired in a 19v power source? Serial as in 1K ohm + 1K ohm soldered to the pot? Or how would this be wired? I cannot quite make this out in the snapshot. And secondly, what would be required if one were utilizing a 36v power source? A different resistor? How would that be wired? And, I assume the blue object in the snapshot is a fuse??? Is one really needed and if yes, can someone also clue me in on its description so I can order it, and how is it wired within the mix of the 19v and 36v circuit? Any advice will yet again be much appreciated. I can follow directions, am decent at soldering and constructing things… but am not trained in electrical engineering hence as the saying goes.. “a little knowledge is... etc etc etc.”
  29. In step down transformer is it that Ampere changes in accordance with Turns. I mean to say that in the Table I found: 38 swg wire has 0.0365 amp @ 200 amp per square cm. and 3507 turns per sq.cm. If i wind 4000 turns shall I arrive at 0.042 Ampere that means current increases with increase in Turns. Raw Formula = (0.0365/3503) x 4000 = 0.0416 Please help am I right. This is required for small step down transformers from 300mA to 1 Amp.
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